Title VII of the Civil Rights Act

Civil Rights Act 1991

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Title VII of the Civil Rights Act

Age Discrimination

Age Discrimination Act 1967

Pregnancy Discrimination

Race/Color Discrimination

National Origin Discrimination


Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin.  Note that whites or blacks can be victims of race discrimination, and men or women can be victims of sex discrimination.  Title VII's prohibition of discrimination includes discrimination in hiring, firing, promotions, wages and fringe benefits.

Title VII covers private employers with 15 or more employees, as well as federal, state and local government employees.  Title VII also prohibits employment agencies from discriminating when they refer people for jobs, and it prohibits unions from discriminating with regard to their membership.

An employer or other covered entity that is found to violate Title VII is subject to the following remedies:

Remedies for Title VII Violations

  • Injunctive relief   

This is a court order prohibiting future discrimination

Federal Sector EEOC

Equal Pay Act of 1963

Rehabilitation Act of 1973

American with Disabilities Act

Filing A Charge

  • Reinstatement

This means that the employer will be required to give the complainant the job that he or she would have had but for the discrimination.

  • Back pay with interest

Back wages accrue from the date on which the discrimination first occurred, but not earlier than two years prior to the filing of an EEOC charge.

  • Front pay

If it is determined that an individual was discriminatorily denied or terminated from a job, but there is no current vacancy, he or she can be awarded front pay until a vacancy occurs.

  • Attorney's fees

  • Compensatory damages

In cases of intentional discrimination, complainants are eligible for compensatory damages for monetary and nonmonetary harm suffered as a result of the discrimination.

Punitive damages are available against non-governmental entities, where the discrimination was undertaken with malice or reckless indifference to the complainant's rights.

The total amount of compensatory and punitive damages is subject to a cap ranging from $50,000 for employers with 15 - 100 employees, to $300,000 for employers with more than 500 employees.  That cap, however, does not apply to damages for past pecuniary losses due to the discrimination, nor does it apply to back-pay or front-pay.

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