Title VII of the Civil Rights Act
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin. Note that whites or blacks can be victims of race discrimination, and men or women can be victims of sex discrimination. Title VII's prohibition of discrimination includes discrimination in hiring, firing, promotions, wages and fringe benefits.
Title VII covers private employers with 15 or more employees, as well as federal, state and local government employees. Title VII also prohibits employment agencies from discriminating when they refer people for jobs, and it prohibits unions from discriminating with regard to their membership.
An employer or other covered entity that is found to violate Title VII is subject to the following remedies:
Remedies for Title VII Violations
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In cases of intentional discrimination, complainants are eligible for compensatory damages for monetary and nonmonetary harm suffered as a result of the discrimination.
Punitive damages are available against non-governmental entities, where the discrimination was undertaken with malice or reckless indifference to the complainant's rights.
The total amount of compensatory and punitive damages is subject to a cap ranging from $50,000 for employers with 15 - 100 employees, to $300,000 for employers with more than 500 employees. That cap, however, does not apply to damages for past pecuniary losses due to the discrimination, nor does it apply to back-pay or front-pay.